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International Astronomical Center

ICOP

Visibility of Dhul Hijjah Crescent 1434 AH

On this page:-

When to Observe Dhul Hijjah Waxing (NEW) Crescent ?


The geocentric conjunction (Geocentric New Moon) will occur Inshalla on (Saturday 05 October 2013) at 00:35 UT.

Sighting the new crescent on (Saturday 05 October 2013) and (Sunday 06 October 2013) is shown in the below graphs using the program Accurate Times by Mohammad Odeh according to Odeh criterion. Where:-

Saturday 05 October 2013

Sunday 06 October 2013

According to the Universal Hejric Calendar (UHC), which is based on the calculated crescent visibility, the start of this month in the Eastern Region will be on Sunday 06 October 2013 and in the Western Region will be on Sunday 06 October 2013. Hence the first day of Eid in both regions will be on Tuesday 15 October 2013. Kindly notice that the UHC is a pre-calculated calendar, which adopts a certain criterion to start the new Hejric month. Your country/organization might adopt different criterion to start the new Hejric month. So it is highly advised to read the UHC website before giving any judgment.

- Results of seeing the crescent, and the first day of the month in different countries will be added here Inshalla as we receive the reports from ICOP's members. If you wish to be a member in ICOP, or to know more about it, kindly click here.





Dhul Hijjah Waxing (NEW) Crescent Observation Results




Sat 05 October 2013



Algeria


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Hocine Chikh Aissa from Ghardaia City in Ghardaia State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Brunei Darussalam


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Dr. Mohammed Hussain Ahmad from Bandar Seri Begawan City in Brunei State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Dr. Mohammed Hussain   Ahmad said: "On the evening of Saturday, Oct 05, 2013, the Syariah High Court judge has announced that the crescent for the month of Dhul Hijjah 1434 was not sighted. Therefore, we'll complete 30 days for the month of Dhul Qaedah and the first day of Dhul Hijjah will commence on Monday, Oct 07, 2013 and Brunei will celebrate Eid Adha on Wednesday, Oct 16, 2013."



Egypt


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Abdulmameed Hashima from بنها City in القليوبية State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



2 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Ahmad Abu Hashimah from بنها City in القليوبية State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Indonesia


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi from Surakarta City in Central Java State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi said: "On the evening of Saturday, Oct 05, 2013, the new crescent of Dhul Hijjah 1434 was not sighted from Assalaam Observatory-Sukoharjo and also from all over area in Indonesia. According to Imkan Rukyat, Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia  has announced that Sunday, October 6, 2013, will be the first day of Dhu Al Hijja, and that the first day of Eid Al Adha will be on Tuesday, October 15, 2013.
"



Libya


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Eng. Mohammed Abdulkarim from البريقة City in اجدابيا State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was superb, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Oman


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Prof. Mohammed Al-Bussaidi from Al-Fulaij Observatory City in Muscat State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not seen by CCD Imaging
Prof. Mohammed Al-Bussaidi said: "The weather was good no clouds, humidity was low and no dust or winds. We could not see the Crescent Moon."



Saudi Arabia


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Saleh Al-Saab from Al bosor Near Buraydah City in Algasseem State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



South Africa


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Hashim Salie from Cape Town City in Western Cape State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. Hashim Salie said: "Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatullah. No hilaal was sighted by naked eyes anywhere in South Africa on 5 October 2013. "The new moon indicating the start of the Islamic month of Thil Hijja was not seen on Saturday evening. According to the hakim of the Crescent Observer Society (COS), Sheik Siraj Hendricks, this means that the first of Thil Hijja will be on Monday 7 October and the day of Eidul Adha will coincide with Wednesday 16 October. The announcement, made live on VOC at 8pm on Saturday evening, came after consensus was reached among all observers from the Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape to Mpumulanga and Gauteng." This is the view of the United Ulema Council of South Africa (UUCSA).

The judiciaries of the Majlisush Shua al Islami and the Islamic Council of South Africa (ICSA) has declared that Eid ul Adha shall be on TUESDAY, 15 OCTOBER 2013.

Again, South African communties will be split of the celebration of Eidul ul Adhaa, locally known a LABARANG GAJI, THE EID OF HAJ."



2 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Dr. Abdurrazak Ebrahim from Cape Town City in Western Cape State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Sri Lanka


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Abdul Rahman Razeen from colombo City in western province State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. Abdul Rahman Razeen said: "A.Alaikum. Though its 28th of dhul-hijjah i went to sight the moon at my locol place. The moon was impossible to sight according to my view and according to the experiencd astronomers i:e falaki muthamarris."



United Kingdom


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Eng. Qamar Uddin from York City in North Yorkshire State mentioned that the sky was totally cloudy, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Eng. Qamar Uddin said: "On Saturday 5 October 2013 (29 Dhul Qaidah 1434 AH) many people from throughout the UK have attempted to sight the crescent moon (Hilal) of Dhul Hijjah after sunset. None of the groups were able to sight the Hilal as many places had cloudy sky conditions.

We have not received any reliable sighting report (Muhaqaq-Ruyat-Basari) from any countries east of the UK/Morocco, either.

Therefore, the Wifaqul Ulama have decided that the month of Dhul Qiadah 1434 AH will complete 30-days and the month of Dhul Hijjah 1434 AH will start from Monday 7 October 2013, which makes the fast on the "Day of Arafat" to be on Tuesday 15th and Eid-ul Adha on Wednesday 16th October 2013, Insha-Allah.

We wish all Muslims a blessed Eid Mubarak. May Allah accept our celebrations and sacrifices (Ameen).

Please note that we will be launching a Petition soon for "One Day Eid", so please visit our website for more details at www.moonsighting.org.uk - JazakAllahu Khair."



United States


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Dr. John Caldwell from McDonald Obs City in TX State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not sought by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Dr. John Caldwell said: "Mercury useful as a pointing and focus check.  Conditions
very good.  Tried carefully and hard, but not visible."



Sun 06 October 2013



Bahrain


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Eng. Ali Majeed Al Hajari from مدينة عيسى City in الوسطى State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Eng. Ali Majeed Al Hajari said: "اول رؤيا لهلال شهر ذو الحجة لعام 1434الذي ظهر ليوم امس الاحد 6 اكتوبر الجاري (05:38) مساءاً بتوقيت مملكة البحرين، وكان ارتفاع القمر بهذا التوقيت 6 درجات و50 دقيقة، وبنسبة إضاءة الهلال (2.98 بالمائة)، وبشدة الإضاءة للهلال وتساوي سالب (05.94meg)، وكان عمره اثناء التصوير يوم و14 ساعة و4 دقائق.

تم تصويره بواسطة كاميرة كنون 600 دي وتلسكوب ميد عاكس بقطر 4 أنش وببعد بؤري 800 ملم، لذلك ظهر الهلال من فوق احد اسطح مبنى الكائن بمدينة عيسى معكوس.
"



Germany


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Eng. Martin Elsaesser from Munich City in Bavaria State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not sought by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was seen by CCD Imaging
Eng. Martin Elsaesser said: "The weather was bad with lots of clouds during the day and only rare gaps between them. As the forecast for the evening was even worse i had to try daytime observation again. I setup the telescope, waited for some time till i could see the sun for a few minutes so i could focus and align the mount. Then i waited for another 45minutes until finally a gap appeared where the moon was. The crescent was easily seen with the telescope at 27x magnification and the imaging part gave a nice view of the structures on the crescent. After a few minutes the gap moved on and the observation was ended."



Ghana


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Abdul-Aziz Anyang from Accra City in Greater Accra State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was superb, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. Abdul-Aziz Anyang said: "The new crescent (Hilal) was not seen in any of the regional capitals of Ghana on Sat Oct 05 after sunset. It was clearly seen today Sunday Oct 06 by a majority of the muslims in all the ten regions.  .  May Allah reward us for our efforts in doing the right and forgive us for our shortfalls...AMEEN!"



Indonesia


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi from Surakarta City in Central Java State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi said: "Alhamdulillah, we tried again to observe the new crescent of Dzulhijjah 1434 AH on Sunday, 6 Oct 2013 from Assalaam Observatory and the Hilal was easy SEEN. All my students of CASA (Assalaam Students' Astronomy Club) could see the Hilal after sunset. Hilal was first seen by my student Usman  Radhi, class of Tks A from Pangkalanbun and Rania Farhana class of X Soc-1 SHS from Samarinda.
Many Thanks to mr. Muflih Arisa Adnan from LP2IF RHI and mr. Zacky Fuad the owner of Muslimdaily.net for the partnership.

Live streaming Hilal from indonesia via: hilal.kiminfo.go.id

The Hilal Dzulhijjah 1434 AH timelapse video is here:
http://youtu.be/AxG3E4l6hk8
"



2 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi from Surakarta City in Central Java State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi said: "Alhamdulillah, we tried again to observe the new crescent of Dzulhijjah 1434 AH on Sunday, 6 Oct 2013 from Assalaam Observatory and the Hilal was easy SEEN. All my students of CASA (Assalaam Students' Astronomy Club) could see the Hilal after sunset. Hilal was first seen by my student Usman  Radhi, class of Tks A and Rania Farhana class of X Soc-1 SHS.

Many Thanks to mr. Muflih Arisa Adnan from LP2IF RHI and mr. Zaky Fuadz from Muslimdaily.net for the partnership.

The Hilal timelapse video is here:
http://youtu.be/AxG3E4l6hk8
"



Iran


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Alireza Mehrani from Esfahan City in Esfahan State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



2 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Eng. Seyyed Ghasem Rostami from Bojnord City in Khorasan State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was very hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Eng. Seyyed Ghasem Rostami said: "I saw the crescent by 8" telescope at 17:17."



Libya


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Eng. Mohammed Abdulkarim from البريقة City in اجدابيا State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was superb, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



2 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Eng. Mohamed Mogerby from طرابلس City in حي الأندلس State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was seen by CCD Imaging
Eng. Mohamed Mogerby said: "هذه الصورة تم إلتقاطها بواسطة كاميرا الهاتف النقال من خلال تلسكوب 127 ملم، قبل غروب الشمس في مدينة طرابلس"



Malaysia


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Kassim Bahali from Jasin City in Melaka State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Nigeria


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Dr. Z.Sani Mustapha from kaduna City in kaduna State mentioned that the sky was totally cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not seen by CCD Imaging
Dr. Z.Sani Mustapha said: "Crescent was not sighted"



Saudi Arabia


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Saleh Al-Saab from Albosor,near Buraydah City in Al Gasseem State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Senegal


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Ibrahima Lo from Dakar City in Senegal State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was superb, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



Sri Lanka


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Nular Bary from Borella City in Colombo 00800 State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. Nular Bary said: "Today 29th. of Dhul-Qi'dah 1434H (6/10/2013) evening Colombo western sky was clear and I went up to my roof top to observe the hilal of Dhul-Hijjah 1434. I was able to spot the New Moon of Dhul-Hijjah 1434 at 6:25PM.and our Sunset was at 6:01PM."Ma Sha Allah", immediately I informed our Hilal committee. The committee have received positive sighting from various parts of Sri Lanka. Hence the committee have decided to start the month of Dhul-Hijjah on Monday 7th October 2013. The Eid al-Adha to be celebrated on Oct. 16th "In Sha Allah. "



2 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Abdul Rahman Razeen from Colombo City in Western State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. Abdul Rahman Razeen said: " The crescent of Zul Hijjah was sighted today, Along with Sheikh Abdul Rahman, Bro. Ayas including myself at 6:29pm front of Nimal road masjid, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
"



Tunisia


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Bilel Besbes from المنستير City in المنستير State mentioned that the sky was totally cloudy, the atmospheric condition was very hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



United States


1 . Time of observation: After sunset. Seen: ICOP member Dr. Javad Torabinejad from Blacksburg City in Virginia State mentioned that the sky was partly cloudy, the atmospheric condition was very hazy, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Dr. Javad Torabinejad said: "I arrived at my sighting location (The Blacksburg Middle School) at 6:50 pm EDT (sunset: 6:57 pm).  Using a pair binoculars (7X50), I scanned the western horizon and was able to locate the moon at 6:51 pm; soon after, I sighted the moon with naked eye.  The horns were at 1:30 and 6:00 O'clock (1:30;3:00;6:00).  The lower part of the western horizon was cloudy.  The atmospheric condition was hazy.  While Venus was easily seen by naked eye, Mercury was seen by the binoculars at 7:16 pm.  I left the site when the moon was disappearing behind the clouds at 7:31 pm (moonset: 7:58 pm).  A few minutes later when I got home, I could see Saturn with Naked eye.
"




The OFFICIAL First Day in Different Countries



Sun 06 October 2013


1 . Algeria
2 . Bahrain
3 . Egypt
4 . Ghana
5 . Indonesia
6 . Iraq
7 . Jordan
8 . Kuwait
9 . Lebanon
10 . Libya
11 . Malaysia
12 . Nigeria
13 . Oman
14 . Palestine
15 . Qatar
16 . Saudi Arabia
17 . Sudan
18 . Syria
19 . Tunisia
20 . United Arab Emirates
21 . Yemen


Mon 07 October 2013


1 . Brunei Darussalam
2 . Iran
3 . Morocco
4 . Senegal
5 . South Africa
6 . Sri Lanka
7 . United Kingdom


When to Observe Dhul Qeadah Waning (OLD) Crescent ?


The geocentric conjunction (Geocentric New Moon) will occur Inshalla on (Saturday 05 October 2013) at 00:35 UT.

Sighting the OLD crescent on (Saturday 05 October 2013) and on (Friday 04 October 2013) is shown in the below graphs using the program Accurate Times by Mohammad Odeh according to Odeh criterion. Where:-

Saturday 05 October 2013

Friday 04 October 2013




Dhul Qeadah Waning (OLD) Crescent Observation Results




Thu 03 October 2013



Bahrain


1 . Time of observation: Before sunrise. Seen: ICOP member Eng. Ali Majeed Al Hajari from مدينة عيسى City in الوسطى State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was seen by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Eng. Ali Majeed Al Hajari said: "كان القمر فوق موقع شروق الشمس تقريبا فظهر ضاحكا في صباح هذا اليوم الخميس"



Fri 04 October 2013



Indonesia


1 . Time of observation: Before sunrise. Seen: ICOP member Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi from Surakarta City in Central Java State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was not seen by binocular, the crescent was seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. AR Sugeng Riyadi said: "On Friday, Oct 4, 2013 the old crescent of Thul Keadah 1434 AH was SEEN from Assalaam Observatory, Pabelan Kartasura Sukoharjo Central Java Indonesia. 
I tried to sight the crescent from Juwiring with binocular but it was not seen because all the east sky was hazy. 
Mr. Muflih Arisa Adnan at CASA Laboratory could see and take the photo with DSLR on VC200L Vixen Telescope."



Iran


1 . Time of observation: Before sunrise. Seen: ICOP member Mr. Alireza Mehrani from Esfahan City in Esfahan State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was hazy, the crescent was not seen by naked eye, the crescent was seen by binocular, the crescent was not sought by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging



United States


1 . Time of observation: Before sunrise. Not Seen: ICOP member Mr. Jim Stamm from Tucson City in Arizona State mentioned that the sky was clear, the atmospheric condition was clear, the crescent was not sought by naked eye, the crescent was not sought by binocular, the crescent was not seen by telescope, the crescent was not sought by CCD Imaging
Mr. Jim Stamm said: "Old Moon Crescent Observation Report
======================================
Observed:   Friday; October 04, 2013  -  06:05 (Local)

Location (WGS 84)     = Tucson, Arizona (USA)
   Longitude = 110.6893 W
   Latitude  =  32.4031 N
   Elevation = 2240 meters
   Time Zone = -7.0 hours

Surface conditions at location:
   Temperature =   7 °C
   Humidity    =  60 %
   Pressure    =  30.55 in.

   Only slight haze kept the sky from being perfect.  It did not seem like 60% humidity.

Topocentric and local time values from “Accurate Times”:
   Moonrise (at sea level)  =  05:49
   Sunrise  (at sea level)    =  06:11
   Time from new moon at    06:05   =    12 hr. 33 min.
   Moon lag time                              =     22 min.
   Relative Altitude                           =    4.4  degrees
   Elongation from sun                     =    5.8  degrees
   Crescent width                              =      5  arc seconds
   Illumination                                  =    0.3  percent

I was NOT able to see the crescent, even through a telescope.

It has been 6 months since I’ve made a significant observation, and that was of a crescent that was slightly over 7 degrees elongation.  That observation reinforced my contention that sub-Danjon Limits should be observed routinely when conditions are favorable.  The weather leading up to this observation appeared favorable, and my technique for aiming and focusing went flawlessly.  However, as I looked for the crescent to creep across my eyepiece’s field of view at the proper time, I saw nothing.  The only chance of seeing the crescent would be to follow it up out of the haze.  I engaged the clock drive,  then walked around the scope to set the rate at “Lunar”, which wouldn’t make any difference, except to satisfy my compulsion for precision.  That’s when I bumped my head into the tube - hard enough to offset it.

Observer:              Jim Stamm
E-mail Address:    StammJim@gmail.com"



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